Consolidating new memories requires the amygdala and

The hippocampus is involved in the recognition of place and the consolidation of contextual memories, and is part of a region called the medial temporal lobe (MTL), that also includes the perirhinal, parahippocampal,and entorhinal cortices.Lesions in the medial temporal lobe typically produce amnesia characterized by the disproportionate loss of recently acquired memories.The hypothesis that new memories consolidate slowly over time was proposed 100 years ago, and continues to guide memory research.In modern consolidation theory, it is assumed that new memories are initially 'labile' and sensitive to disruption before undergoing a series of processes (e.g., glutamate release, protein synthesis, neural growth and rearrangement) that render the memory representations progressively more stable.

A recent idea that has been floated suggests that the entorhinal cortex, through which all information passes on its way to the hippocampus, handles “incremental learning” — learning that requires repeated experiences.Furthermore, in the same region, de novo protein synthesis is not essential for memory reconsolidation.C/EBPβ is an evolutionarily conserved genetic marker that has a selective role in the consolidation of new but not reactivated memories in the hippocampus.Particular attention is paid to the time windows during which amnestic and other treatments during memory consolidation/reconsolidation are effective.Similarities and differences between memory consolidation on initial learning and repeated consolidation (reconsolidation) on reactivation by a conditioned stimulus and context are discussed.

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