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This article presents revised radiocarbon dates of the human bones from this site obtained using a more robust purification method targeting the amino acid hydroxyproline.The data show that all the Neanderthal remains are from a much earlier period (Previous dating of the Vi-207 and Vi-208 Neanderthal remains from Vindija Cave (Croatia) led to the suggestion that Neanderthals survived there as recently as 28,000–29,000 B. Subsequent dating yielded older dates, interpreted as ages of at least ∼32,500 B. We have redated these same specimens using an approach based on the extraction of the amino acid hydroxyproline, using preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (Prep-HPLC).We identified one bone that is Neanderthal, based on its mitochondrial DNA, and dated it directly to 46,200 ± 1,500 B. We also attempted to date six early Upper Paleolithic bone points from stratigraphic units G. in Europe witnessed the so-called biocultural transition from the Middle to early Upper Paleolithic, when incoming anatomically modern humans displaced Neanderthal groups across the continent (1, 2).These dates suggest a co-occurrence of early Upper Paleolithic osseous artifacts, particularly split-based points, alongside the remains of Neanderthals is a result of postdepositional mixing, rather than an association between the two groups, although more work is required to show this definitively. Significant questions still remain regarding the precise nature of this transition, the humans responsible for the various transitional early Upper Paleolithic industries, the degree of overlap between Neanderthals and modern humans, and the timing of the disappearance of the former.So, as Clint Eastwood said in “Dirty Harry”: “You’ve got to ask yourself a question. I asked if she would mind if I bought a covered ashtray for her to use. But quibbling over color and finish is taking things a bit far.She said she would buy it since it was her bad habit. Tossing cigarette butts onto the ground is gross, but your husband sounds way too thin-skinned. As for location, did you expect her to place it across town when you suggested it?
That he felt entitled to put you in the awkward position where you now sit, absent encouragement from you, is proof enough of that. Are you willing to have jealous colleagues ascribe your well-earned achievements to sexual prowess?
Given the evidence from the Peștera cu Oase specimen, which demonstrates a recent Neanderthal ancestry in a 40,000 cal B. modern human from the Danube corridor (5), the renewed dating of the Vindija remains is overdue. On the basis of the potential problems associated with the small size of the redated samples and the potential for remaining contaminants, Ox A-X-2089-06 was considered to be a minimum age (14).
Two specimens, Vi-207 and Vi-208, were originally directly AMS dated in the late 1990s at the Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit (ORAU). If the dates are even approximately correct, however, it makes them the most recent known Neanderthals.